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Table of Contents

Email Memos on Helmand Counter-Narcotics: 2003-Present

Opium Poppies in Helmand this year? 15 Sept 2003

Helmand Follow Up 24 Sept 2003 Need for a clear policy statement

Helmand Follow Up II 13 Oct 2003 A Farmer Cotton Committee

Helmand Follow Up III 20 Oct 2003 Time is Running Out

Helmand Follow Up IV 29 Oct 2003 Helmand Farmers are Dissatisfied

Helmand Follow Up V 11 Nov 2003 Opium Poppy Cultivation Must Not be Allowed to Return

Helmand Follow Up VI 2 Dec 2003 The Winter Crop Planting Season Is Well Underway

Helmand Follow Up VII 18 Dec 2003 I will try to be polite.

Helmand Follow Up VIII 19 Jan 2004 The 2004 Poppy Crop is Planted

Helmand Follow Up IX 6 July 2004 Cotton

Helmand Follow Up X 27 July 2004 A Call for Action

Helmand Follow Up XI 20 Aug 2004 Opium Poppies in Helmand this Year? US Military Intervention in Central Helmand? Hopefully Not.

Helmand Follow Up XII 31 Aug 2004 Cotton...Again

Helmand Follow Up XIII 21 Sept 2004 Opium Poppies in Helmand this Year?

Helmand Follow Up XIV 29 Aug 2005 A Time for action again NOW

Helmand Follow Up XV 14 Dec 2005 Poppy and Cotton Policies?

Helmand Follow Up XVI 1 March 2006 Poppies and Cotton Again and Again or The Mistake of a Military Intervention

Helmand Follow Up XVII 9 May 2006 Poppies, Cash-for-Work and Cotton Again

Helmand Follow Up XVIII 16 Aug 2006 Opium Poppy In Helmand Again this Year?

Helmand Follow Up XIX 18 Oct 2006 Poppies in Central Helmand Again this Year.

Helmand Follow Up XX 20 Dec 2006 The Way Backward

Helmand Follow Up XXI 20 March 2007 Eradication and Cotton Again

Helmand Follow Up XXII 23 July 2007 A Proposal for Action...Now

Helmand Follow Up XXIII 27 Sept 2007 Comments on U,S Counter- narcotics Strategy for Afghanistan And Another Call for Positive Action (with photo)

Helmand Follow Up XXIV 12 Dec 2007 Timing is Everything

How to Lose Friends and Make Enemies 11 Feb 2008

Helmand Follow Up XXV 18 June 2008 Need for an Integrated Reconstruction/opium Poppy Reduction Program in Central Helmand

Helmand Follow Up XXVI 23 Aug 2008 Any Effective Action Planned for Opium Poppy Planting Season This Year?

Helmand Follow Up XXVII 1 Feb 2009 A Proposal for the Annual Winter Maintenance Period for Central Helmand Irrigation System

Helmand Follow Up XXVIII 1 Aug 2009 Time AGAIN to Begin Planning for an Effective Counter-Narcotics Program for the Fall Planting Season

Helmand Follow Up XXIX 22 Jan 2010 Opium Poppy Planting Season Again: Were We Ready?

Helmand Follow Up XXX 18 April 2010 More Mixed-signals for Central Helmand Farmers

Helmand Follow Up XXXI 15 November 2010 More Opium Poppies in Central Helmand This Year?

Helmand Follow Up XXXII 18 December 2010 Support for Cotton in Central Helmand This Year?

Helmand Follow Up XXXIII 15 May 2011 The Failed Reconstruction/Development Program in Helmand.

Helmand Follow Up XXXIV 22 Sept 2011 No Help for Helmand Cotton Farmers this Year: We Must Stop Sending Mixed Signals to the Farmers.

Helmand Follow Up XXXV 10 Jan 2012 More Opium Poppy in Helmand This Year Reflects the Failure of Our Counter-Narcotics Program.

Helmand Follow Up XXXVI 6 April 2012 Third Ministerial Conference of the Paris Pact Partners on Opiates in Afghanistan, The 55th Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, The Central Asian Counter-Narcotics Initiative, etc: More and More Talk and Planned Police Work But How about the Farmers Who Cultivate Most of the Opium Poppy in Central Helmand?

Helmand Follow Up XXXVII 13 April 2012 Help for Central Helmand Farmers?

Helmand Follow Up XXXVIII 28 Dec 2012 Clearly There is Continuing Need for an Effective Integrated Counter-Narcotics Program

Helmand Follow Up XXXIX 21 September 2013 The Continuing Failure of Our Counter-Narcotics Programs: When Will We Act Effectively?

Helmand Follow Up XXXX 22 November 2013 The Failed Counter-Narcotics Programs of 2013: Again!

Helmand Follow Up XXXXI 15 May 2014 Poppy Harvest Season is Here Again: What's Next with Our Failed Counter Narcotics Projects??

Helmand Follow Up XXXXII 10 Oct 2014 The U.S. has already spent nearly $7.6 billion to combat the opium industry. Yet by every conceivable metric, we've failed: Sopko 3pp.

Helmand Follow Up XXXXIII 10 Dec 2017 Another Opium High for Afghanistan And Next Year’s Crop is Planted, 5pp.

Conference Papers on Helmand, 2002-08

Opium Poppy Cultivation in Central Helmand, Afghanistan: A Case Study in Bad Program Management, The Society for Applied Anthropology, 67th Annual Meeting, March 2007, 18 pp. (Part 1)   (Part 2)

Reconstruction and Opium Poppy Cultivation in Central Helmand: The Need for an Integrated Program, Conference on Afghanistan Reconstruction: The Future, University of Nebraska at Omaha, October 2008, 18 pp.

From New Deal to New Frontier in Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State, Nick Cullather, Working Paper #6, August 2002, The Cold War as Global Conflict, International Center for Advanced Studies, New York University, 34pp.

Toward Peace and Independence in Afghanistan: Tribalism, Ethnicity, and the State in the Future of Afghanistan, Bahram Tavakolian, Middle East Studies Association Annual Meeting, November 1990, San Antonio, Texas, 22pp.

Little America Revisited: Successes and Failures in the Development of a Major Irrigation System in Southern Afghanistan., The Society for Applied Anthropology, 73rd Annual Meeting, March 2013, 21 pp.

Theses and Dissertations on Helmand, 1975:

The Water Supply Constraint: An Evaluation of Irrigation Projects and Their Role in the Development of Afghanistan, Lloyd I.Z. Baron, PhD dissertation, McGill University, 1975, 277 pp. (US Helmand vs. Soviet Nangahar) (Part 1)   (Part 2)

Socio-Economic Aspects of Land Settlement in Helmand Valley, Afghanistan, Ghulam Farouq, MS thesis, American University of Beirut, 1975, Readable to p. 103.

Final Project Reports on Helmand, 1998-2005:

Helmand Irrigation Rehabilitation Project, 1 Dec 98 - 31 March 99, MCI/INL, 98 pp. (w/photos)

Cotton & Alternative Crops Pilot Project, 7 April - 20 May 02, CADG/USAID, 25pp. (edited)

Helmand Drainage Rehabilitation Project, 11 Oct 02 - 30 Jan 03, DAI/USAID, 44 pp.

HAFO Narrative Report on Drain Cleaning in Nad-i-Ali and Marja Districts, HAFO/DAI, April 03, 7pp.

Trip report and Outline of a Strategy Paper for Central Helmand Irrigation Systems, Afghanistan, 13 Feb 04 - 8 March 04, RAMP/USAID, 13 pp.

End of Assignment Report, Helmand Alternative Income Project, 19 Nov 04 - 31 Jan 05, RAMP/USAID, 16 pp.

Lashkar Gah: The Beginning:

Report on the Site Selection for the Permanent Administrative Center of the HELMANDVALLEY AUTHORITY, Frank E. Patterson, USTCA, 1953, 23pp, w/maps.


Lashkar Gah Survey: A Demographic and Economic Analysis, Murad A. Asiel, Faculty of Economics, Kabul University, 1349/1970, 78 pp.

Helmand Valley Development, 1p.

An Introduction to Helmand Valley Development, Ghulam Farouq, ca, 1977, 17 pp.

VI. Helmand Valley Project is Successful, Ghulam Farouk, ca. 1980, 9pp.

VII. Conclusions and Suggestions, Ghulam Farouq, ca. 1980, re-typed December 2012 with some typo corrections, 11 pp.

Helmand Valley Farm Economic Surveys, 1965-2000:

Economics of Agriculture Production in Helmand Valley, Afghanistan, I.M. Stevens, J.K. Tarzi, US Bureau of Reclamation, 1965.

1970 Farm Economic Survey: Helmand and Arghandab Valleys of Afghanistan, G.P. Owens, USAID/Kabul, 15 Dec 71.

1970s Helmand Farm Labor Demand Curve, USAID.

1975 Farm Economic Survey of the Helmand Valley, F. Shairzai, G. Farouq, R. Scott, USAID/Kabul, 1978.

Farming Systems of Nad Ali District, Helmand Province, Swedish Committee for Afghanistan, August 1992.

Helmand Initiative Socio-Economic Survey, AKBAR Survey Unit, UNDP and Helmand Planning Group, April 2000.

Shamalan Canal Socio-Economic Study, C. Sacnz and Faiz-ur-Rahman, Afghans for a Civil Society, 27 pp.

The Soviets and After, 1980-2005:

Tribal & Ethnic Groups in the Helmand Valley, R.B. Scott, Asia Society, Spring ,1980, 36pp, w/maps.

Planning for Reconstruction of Helmand-Arghandab Valley Irrigation Systems in Afghanistan, 1988, R.B. Scott memo to USAID, 10 pp.

Draft Report: An Assessment of Helmand Valley Water Control Systems, Abdul Tawab Assifi, P.E., for the Office of AID Representative for Afghanistan, US Embassy, Islamabad, Pakistan, July 17, 1991, 30 pp. w/maps.

Final Report: An Assessment of Helmand Valley Water Control Systems, Abdul Tawab Assifi, P.E., for the Office of AID Representative for Afghanistan, US Embassy, Islamabad, Pakistan, November 1991, 51 pp. w/maps, with pp. 1-6, and photographs missing.

United Nations Plan of Operation for Helmand Province in 1991-92, Phase II, UNDP, 1991, 20 pp.

1995 COMPARATIVE SURVEY: HELMAND PROVINCE, AFGHANISTAN, Afghanistan Drug Control and Rehabilitation Programme, AFG/89/580, 1995, 107 pp.

R.B.Scott letter to Sultan Aziz, on the present status of the Helmand Irrigation System, UNDP/OPS, 25 February 1995, 7pp.

Outline of a Visit to Helmand Region by Eng. Jawed and R.B.Scott 17-23 March 1997, 6pp.

R.B.Scott letter to Alfredo Witschi-Cestari, UN Coordinator for Afghanistan, proposal on Helmand Irrigation Reconstruction and Counter-Narcotics, 25 April 1997, 5pp.

R.B. Scott MCI/Lash to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 28 Dec 98 Meeting with Helmand Governor 28, Dec 98, 2pp.

Make Hay While the Sun Shines or The Flood of Poppies in Sping 1999, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 19 Jan 99, 2pp.

Surprise: Unannounced Opening of the Boghra Canal, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 2 Feb 99, 3pp.

R.B.Scott letter to Counselor for Narcotics Affairs on Helmand, Islamabad, Trip Report, 10 Feb. 98, 71 pp. with 110 photos. (Part 1)   (Part 2)

Flood in the Boghra, Damaged Siphon and Blown Embankment, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 10 Feb 99, 2pp.

Boghra Canal Intake Gates: A Need for Action, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 10 Feb 99, 3pp.

Helmand Irrigation Rehabilitation Project Update, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash Fax to M.Pont MCI/Quetta, 25 Feb 99, 4pp.

R. B. Scott report to INL/MCI/HAVA, subject: 31 Dec 98-26 March 99 Work Period, Helmand Irrigation Rehabilitation Project, March 99, 6pp.

A Question on the FAO Seed Project, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MIC/Quetta, 27 March 99, 1p.

Repair of Diversion Dikes, Service Roads, Siphons and Underdrains, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 13 March 99, 3pp.

Summary of Accomplishments, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash letter to Mullah Abdul Bahri, Helmand Governor, 24 March 99, 3pp.

Watermelon and Cotton seed Distribution, R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, 26 March 99, 2pp.

R.B. Scott MCI/Lash letter to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, Helmand Irrigation Rehabilitation Project Activities, 1 April 99, 6pp.

An Unsolicited Comment on Taliban Relations, R.B. Scott Fax to Jeff Lunstead, Bureau of South Asian Affairs, 10 Nov 99, 3pp..

Helmand Initiative: Joint Strategy Development Second Draft, Helmand Planning Group, UNDP/Islamabad, 2000, 56pp.

Disaster Relief in Southern Afghanistan, attachment to R.B.Scott to E.Kvitashvili USAID email, 8 Feb 01, 5pp.

R.B. Scott memo to USAID, Project Proposal for the Rehabilitation of 37 km. of the S-10.7 Lateral and 3 km. of the Outlet Drain in the Shamalan Area of Central Helmand Province, Afghanistan, 13 Feb 2001, 12 pp. w/photos.

R.B. Scott memo to USAID, Project Proposal for the Reconstruction of the Chah-i-Anjir Suspension Footbridge in Central Helmand Province, Afghanistan, 15 Feb 2001, 7pp. w/photos.

R.B.Scott letter to Dr. Lowry Taylor, Narc. Affairs/Islamabad, Helmand Proposals, 7 May 2001, 2pp.

R.B.Scott FAX to C.Rocca, Dept. of State, Unsolicited Comment on Our Policies Toward the Taliban of Afghanistan, 17 Sept. 01, 4pp.

R.B.Scott FAX to C.Rocca, Dept. of State, Another Unsolicited Comment on Our Present Policy Toward the Taliban and the People of Afghanistan: A Tragedy in the Making, 18 Oct 01, 7pp.

Project Proposal Document for WFP and UNDCP Assistance (Nad-i-Ali drainage), 2002 (no date), 9 pp.



R.B. Scott memo to The Files, Revival of the Cotton Industry in Helmand, MCI, 1 Feb 99, 5pp.

R.B.Scott memo to M.Pont, MCI, 1998-99 Cotton Production, 26 March 99, 5pp.

R.B. Scott email memo to USAID, Helmand Cotton and Other Cash Crops, 24 Dec.01, 6pp.

(Helmand) Cotton Project Concept Paper, Central Asia Development Group (CADG), February 2002, 3pp.

Policy Issues and Recommendations for the Cotton Subsector in Afghanistan, Kenneth Neils and Mohammad Usman, RAMP/USAID, Nov. 2003, Kabul, 3pp.

Sub.: Helmand Privately Owned Cotton Gins, R.B. Scott, Central Helmand Drainage Project letter to Minister Ashraf Ghani Minister of Fiance, 1 Jan 03, 1p.

Cotton Production Assessment, RAMP/USAID, July 2004, 12pp.

Cotton: An Alternative to Opium Poppy in Central Helmand, (Abstract) Richard B. Scott, Afghan Energy Project presentation, October 2010.

Cotton gin reopens to Afghan farmers, Cpl. Megan Sindelar, DVID, Lashkar Gah, October 2010.

Support for Cotton this Year?, (Email, 31 addressees), Dick Scott, November 2010.


Helmand Valley Wheat Crop 1973 (Price and Expectations) and Other Crops, R. Scott to R. Hooker Memo, USAID/Kabul, 27 Nov 73, 4pp.

The Switch from Mexipak to Local Varieties of Wheat: Interviews in the Shamalan (Nawa), February 1974, Helmand Valley, R. Scott to R. Hooker Memo, USAID/Kabul, 2 March 74, 4pp.

Variations in Adoption of Mexipak wheat and Fertilizer in the upper and lower Helmand, R. Scott to R. Hooker Memo, USAID/Kabul, 1 May 74, 5pp.

Afghanistan Wheat Planting Survey 1992/93: Helmand, Kandahar, Ghazni and Heart Provinces , DAI/USAID, 23pp.

Ground Water and Drain Water:

Shallow Ground Water in the Zamin Dawar Area: Helmand Province, Neal E. McClymonds, USGS, Lashkar Gah, 1972, 103pp.

Central Helmand Drain Water Tests, Colorado State University, 27 February, 2003, 2pp.

Shamalan (Nawa) Land Development Project 1967 - 73

The Shamalan Land Development Project: An Introduction, R.B.Scott, 2011, 2pp.

Helmand Arghandab Valley Development Project Afghanistan, Shamalan Unit, Draft Feasibility Report, Sept. 1967, Bureau of Reclamation, Bost, Afghanistan, 152 pp. (Part 1)   (Part 2)

Helmand Arghandab Valley Development Project Afghanistan, Shamalan Unit, Feasibility Report, Appendix B, Sept. 1968, Bureau of Reclamation, Bost, Afghanistan, 133pp.

Program Schedule Shamalon Unit (31,399 Acres), Charles G. Burress, J.G.White Engineering Corp. Dec. 1967, 12 pp.

Organization of Effort to Gain Peoples' Support of the Shamalan Project, C. Husick & C. Uyehara, DP to B. Harvey, D. & A. Baron, HAVR, draft memo, 8/3/70, 5pp.

Shamalan Project, B. Harvey D to R.B. Scott DP memo, March 22, 1971, 1p.

Comments on (Helmand) Programs, R.B.Scott DP memo to A.R.Baron Assistant Director, HAVR, April 3, 1971, 5pp.

Further Studies in the Shamalan Valley, R.B.Scott DP to A.R.Baron, Assistant Director, HAVR memo, 5/6/71, 10pp.

Relocation of Farms - Shamalan Development, O.D. Mort, Field Engineer (Bur. Rec.), R.F. Thompson, Design Engineer (Bur. Rec.) memo to J.K. Shankland, Project Manager (Bur. Rec.), May 1971, 3pp.

Your Memo of May 17, 1971, R.B. Scott DP to A. Baron HAVR memo, June 1971, 3pp.

The North Shamalan: A Survey of Land and People, R.B.Scott, USAID/Kabul, August 1971, 51 pp. w/maps.


The North Shamalan: A Survey of land and People, R.B.Scott to B.Harvey D and A.R.Baron AD/HAVR memo, 11/24/71, 4pp.

Attitudes in the North Shamalan, R.B. Scott DP to A.R. Baron HAVR memo, March 9, 1972, 2pp.

Attitudes toward the Shamalan Project in the Said Village, Aynak, the crisis syndrome and the continued need for Public Information, R.B. Scott to A. R. Baron HAVR memo, 4 April 1972, 3pp, re-typed June 2012.

Comments on Errors in the Cadastral Records: Saidad Village-Aynak-Shamalan Valley, w/maps, R.B.Scott, DP, April 18, 1972, 12 pp., re-typed Nov. 2012.

The Shamalan, Its People and USAID Responsibilities, R.B. Scott DP and Cecil Uyahara AD/DP memo to Vincent Brown DD and Bartlett Harvey D, May 2, 1972, 2pp.

Another Visit to the North Shamalan, R.B. Scott/Cecil Uyehara AD/DP to A.R. Baron HAVR/Mr. Shankland BuRec memo, May 29, 1972, 4pp.

Khalaj Market (Nawa/Shamalan), Paper No. 1, R. B. Scott, USAID/Kabul, July 1972, 9 pp. w/maps.

Khalaj Market Administration, Paper No.2, R.B. Scott, USAID/Kabul, 23 Jan 73, 22pp.

Ownership in the First 200 acres of North Shamalan, R.B.Scott DP to B.Hales AAG memo, August 30, 1972, 4pp.

A discussion with Mohammad Ibrahim Khan of Khalaj, R.B.Scott to D.Levintow AD/HAVR, October 16, 1972, 2pp.

The long wait in the North Shamalan, R.B.Scott DP to D.Levintow Assistant Director HAVR, Oct 17, 1972, 2pp.

Observations in the Shamalan, November-December 1972, R.B. Scott DP to D. Levintow and J. Shankland HAVR, Nov. 5 1972, 6pp.

The beginning of the crunch: A statement and analysis of present village attitudes in the North Shamalan", R.B. Scott DBP to D. Levintow HAVR, Nov. 8 1972, 9pp.

Cotton Demonstration Farm - Shamalan Project, J.K. Shankland Bur Rec. memo to D. Levintow HAVR, 18 Dec 72, 5pp. w/maps.

Subject: Cotton Demonstration Farm, E.C. Ott HAVR letter to Gov. Mir Mohd Akbar Reza HAVA, 19 Dec 72, 2pp.

Shamalan Flour Mills, R.B. Scott, USAID/Afghanistan, 1972, 29pp. w/map.

An Alternative to Stationary Flour Mills, Marja, 1999, photo.

Sector Analysis: Helmand-Arghandab Valley Region, Lloyd Baron and David Levintow, USAID/Afghanistan, 1973, 136 pp.

Payment for Crop Damage and Right-of-Way in the Shamalan, R.B.Scott DP to D. Levintow AD/HAVR memo, Jan 6, 1973, 4pp.

USAID Responsibilities for the Shamalan Situation, R. Scott, DP to A. Boehme, A-DD, memo, Jan. 8, 1973, 3pp.

New/Old Approaches to the People in the Shamalan, R.B.Scott DP to D.Levintow AD/HAVR memo, January 13, 1973, 4pp.

Some Problems of Land Registration in Helmand-Arghandab Region, R.B.Scott and L.Baron DP to A. Boehme A/DD memo, January 27, 1973, 2pp.

Dr. Abdul Wahed Sarabi, RGA Minister of Planning letter to Vincent W. Brown, Director/USAID/Kabul, on Shamalan Project, February 15, 1973, 4pp.

Problems of Land Titles and the Shamalan Project, R.B.Scott DP to A.Reich (A) AD/DP memo, 27 Feb. 1973, 1p.

Catch-22 in the Shamalan: Land Titles and Payment for Construction Damages, R. Scott DP to A. Reich DP, memo, Feb. 28, 1973, 2pp.

Inclusion of the Shamalan Issue as One of the Problems in the Issues Paper to be Presented to the Minister of Agriculture, R. Scott, DP to C. Martin, AGR, memo, Dec.10, 1973, 2pp.

Informal/internal USAID/W communication on Shamaland Project, March 14, 1973, 1p.

USAID letter to Governor Reza ending Shamalan Land Development Project, April 21, 1973, 1p.

Ground Conditions Under Twenty Seven Acres of Land Situated in the Vicinity of the S10.7 Lateral Headworks Structure at Station 10 + 717 on the Shamalan Canal - Owner Mohamad Din, Parcel No. 202, Adrian K. Long, Civil Engineer, BuRed, to files, April 24, 1973, 4pp.

End of Tour Report, J.K. Shankland, Project Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Lashkar Gah, May 14, 1973, 8pp.

Between Projects in Helmand 1973-75

Shamalan Project Section of "Draft Audit Report - Functional Review pf Capital Development Loan Projects", R.B. Scott DP to James Wedberg DP, May 11, 1974, 2pp.

Proposed Activity for Scott in Lashkar Gah, R.B. Scott DP to Arthur Reich DP, October 31, 1973, 1p.

The beginning of the crunch: A statement and analysis of present village attitudes in the North Shamalan, R.B.Scott to D. Levintow HAVR memo, November 8, 1973, 9pp.

A Variation in Tactics: The Shamalan and Minister of Agriculture, R.B.Scott DP thru Charles Johnson A-AD/DP To John Wilson AGR memo, Dec. 4, 1973, 2pp.

Internal USAID/A comment on Shamalan Project, Charles Johnson AD/DP, December 6 1973, 1p.

Future Helmand Valley Involvement, R.B.Scott, December 10, 1973, 7pp.

Staff Paper for DAC Discussion on future USAID involvement in Helmand, Louis Mitchell, USAID Rural Development Advisor, 8 April, 1974, 5pp.

Studies of Water Distribution, R.B. ScottDP to Louis L. Mitchell PDD, April 29, 1974, 2pp.

Memorandum of Conversation (including Helmand), Mohammad Naim, Foreign Policy Advisor to President Daoud and Dr. Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State, November 1, 1974, 8pp.

Helmand Discussions on new project, Two R.T. Curran, DCM, memos to The Record, February 3, 1975, participants included: R.H. Nooter, Asst. Adm., AID/SA, R.T. Curran, DCM/Kabul, V.W. Brown, USAID Dir./Kabul, Am.M. Sherzai, Helmand Governor, A.T. Assafi, Herat Governor, Z. Tyson, USAID, Formali, HAVA, etc., 5pp.

Helmand Drainage Project 1974-79

Afghanistan _ Helmand Valley Drainage and Irrigation Improvement - PP, Ronald E. Bobel PPC to Arthur Handly PPC memo, March 3, 1975, 3pp.

Comments on Central Helmand Drainage and Irrigation Improvement: Helmand-Arghandab Valley Project Paper, and the Social Context Within Which the Project Must Function, R.B. Scott DP to E.J. Barbour A-D memo, March 3, 1975, 6pp.

Central Helmand Drainage and Irrigation Improvement, Ref. Project Paper Dated 14 February 1975, Ernest J. Barbour A/D to Vincent W. Brown USAID/A Director, memo, March 5, 1975, 10pp.

Revised Project Paper on Helmand Valley Drainage Upgrading(Memorandum), Vincent W. Brown, April 1975, USAID, 7pp.

Project Paper: Central Helmand Drainage, USAID, Kabul, April 1975, 85pp.

Payment for On-Farm Drains in the Helmand, R.B. Scott DP to Charles Johnson D-AD/DP memo, April 1, 1975, 4pp.

Need for a Systematic Information Program in the Central Helmand Drainage Project, R.B. Scott DP to Charles Johnson D-AD/DP memo, June 2, 1975, 3pp.

HAVA Priority of Land Settlement and the Central Helmand Drainage Project, R.B. Scott DP to C.W. Johnson D-AD/DP memo, June 30, 1975, 5pp.

A Letter Report: Helmand Valley Drainage Work, Gene C. Vittetoe, Soil Conservation Service, September 1975, 45pp.

Central Helmand Drainage Project Observations and Recommendations, James E. Stephenson, USAID/Kabul, October 1975, 8pp.

Elements in Organizing Farmer Work-Gangs for the Helmand Drainage Project, R.B.Scott DP to C.W.Johnson D-AD/DP memo, November 9, 1975, 3pp.

Amounts of Project Land to Have on-farm Drains", R.B. Scott DP to Dr. Raymond W. Hooker, Economist DP, November 15, 1975, 2pp.

Problems of Personalities, Rank and Politics within the HAVA Bureaucracy; or, Some reasons for Delays in Helmand Drainage Project Implementation, R.B.Scott DP to Charles W. Johnson DP draft memo, Dec. 31, 1975, 4pp.

The First Week of Digging Drains Using Hand Labor, R.B. Scott DP to C.W. Johnson D-AD/DP memo, 26 January 1976, 3pp.

Attitudes Toward a Complete System of On-Farm Drains: The Farmers, HAVA, USAID/SCS; and the Need for a Farmer Information Program, R.B. Scott DP to C.W. Johnson DAD/DP memo, February 1,1976, 7pp.

The Need for a Farmer Compensation Scheme for Lost Crops and Land as a Direct Result of the Helmand Drainage Project, R. B. Scott to C. Johnson, USAID/Lashkar Gah, 28 Feb 76, 3pp.

HAVA Priority of Land Settlement and Potential AID Project Development in Land Development and Drainage, R.B. Scott DP to C.W. Johnson DAD/DP, memo, March 6, 1976, 5pp.

TDY for an Educator/Water Management Technician for the Helmand Drainage Project: A Sense of Urgency, R.B.Scott DP memo to C.W.Johnson DAD/DP, March 14, 1976, 5pp.

Focus on HAVA Work on Drainage-Land Development, Location of Four Operational Drag-Lines, and the USAID Drainage Project: Past, Present and Future, R.B.Scott DP to J.Standish CDF memo, March 27,1976, 4pp.

Memorandum of Conversation, Gov. Sherzai, Helmand, Dir. Brown, On Hand Labor, May 24, 1976, 5pp.

Memorandum of Conversation, Gov. Sharzai, Dir. Brown and Nooter on use of hand labor, June 1976, 5pp.

Some Key Issues of Planning for Phase II of the Helmand Drainage Project; Information, Socio-Economic Research and Organization of the Hand-Labor Force, R.B. Scott DP to R. A. Rodgers AD/DP memo, June 9, 1976, 7pp.

Memorandum of Conversation: General President of Water and Power Authority Juma Mohammad Mohammadi and John Standish CDE/USAID, Kajaki Hydroelectric Power Plant, August 1, 1976, 3pp.

Helmand Drainage Project Areas Land Classification, Donald W. Reilly CDE to John Standish Chief CDE, August 4, 1976, 2pp.

Master Plan, Central Helmand Valley Drainage Project, Harold R. Honeyfield SCS to John Geter SCS Team leader, August 8, 1976, 3pp.

Recruitment of a Hand-Labor Force for On-Farm Drain Construction: Helmand Drainage Project, R.B.Scott DP to J.Standish CDF memo, August 9, 1976, 4pp.

Central Helmand Drainage - Project Implementation Committee, John Standish Chief CDE to Vincent W. Brown, Director, August 14, 1976, 6pp.

The Socio-Economic Characteristics of On-farm Drains Hand-laborers: Some Implications for Farm Drain Construction, R.B.Scott, USAID, Nad-i-Ali 1976, 18pp.

The Establishment of a Socio-Economic Research and Project Monitoring Unit Within HAVA, R.B. Scott DP to Sanford J. Stone HAVR, September 11, 1976, 5pp.

Rural Development and Government Priorities in Land Settlement, R.B. Scott DP to L.K. Crandall DP memo, January 8, 1977, 2pp.

Proposal for Incentive Pay for Hand Laborers, R.B. Scott DP to Committee for Hand-Labor Mobilization: Helmand Drainage Project, February 22, 1977, 4pp.

ocio-Economic Research and Project Monitoring Unit within HAVA, Frederic H. Sleigh, Acting Director, to Gov. Abdul Mohd Sherzai, March 29, 1977, 2pp.

Outline of Phase II Project Paper, 1977, 1p.

Land Betterment and Settler Services in the Helmand Valley: A Project Proposal for Implementation in Conjunction with the Helmand Drainage Project at Sometime during Phase II, R.B. Scott to the files memo, April 12, 1977, 6pp.

Salary Supplements for HAVA Socio-economic Research and Evaluation Unit Personnel", E.J. Barbour RD/USAID to Ghulam Farouq HAVA, August 31, 1977, 1p.

Requirements for the Establishment of the Socio-Economic Research Unit within HAVA: Meeting the Conditions Precedent of the Helmand Project Agreement", R.B.Scott DP to E.J. Barbour RD, September 13, 1977, 2pp.

AID Project No. 306-0149, Central Helmand Drainage Project - Phase II, Project Implementation Letter No. 1, Owen Sylke, USAID AD, to Ali Ahmed Khurram, Minister of Planning, Nov. 1, 1977, 18 pp.

Criteria for Selecting Work Sites for the Helmand Drainage Project (Phase II), R.B.Scott DP to E.J Barbour RD memo, December 10, 1977, 4pp.

Helmand (Drainage) Phase II - Economic Consequences to the project if farm drains are not Dug by Hand Labor, B. Kosheleff to O. Cylke, USAID/Kabul, 8 March 78, 6pp.

Letter to Mr. Ferogh from Mr. Grader, drafted 16 April 1978 on "AID Project No. 3306-0149 Central Helmand Drainage Project - Phase II Project Implementation Letter No. 2", R.B. Scott DP to The Files, April 18, 1978, 2pp.

Involving the Socio-Economic Research and Evaluation Unit and HAVA Extension Service in the Helmand Drainage Project: Getting the Show on the Road, R.B.Scott DP to Ronald Rogers AD/DP memo, April 19, 1978, 4pp.

On Understanding the GOA Regulations that Effect the Organization of Hand-Labor for the Helmand Drainage Project: A Possible Solution, R.B.Scott DP to Bruno Kosheleff RD memo, April 22, 1978, 2pp.

HAVA: To Be or Not To Be?, R.B.Scott and F. Shairzay DP to R.A.Rodgers AD/DP memo, April 24, 1978, 5pp.

Helmand Drainage Project: Saved by the Bell?, RB Scott DP thru R. A. Rogers AD/DP to Charles R. Grader Director memo, May 8, 1978, 2pp.

USAID Initial Contacts with the New Government, R.A. Rogers AD/DP thru Owen Cylke DD to C.R. Grader D memo, May 9, 1978, 2pp.

Strategies, Evaluations and Analyses

Report of the Helmand River Commission: Afghanistan and Iran, F.J. Dominguez, R.L. Lowry, C.E. Webb, Commissioners, February 28, 1951, 152pp. w/maps.

Report on Development of Helmand Valley Afghanistan ICA/Tudor Engineering Co., 1956, 212pp, w/photos.

Helmand-Arghandab Valley: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, Mildred Caudill, USAID/Lashkar Gah, 1969, 70pp.

Price Trends and Development Strategy, G.P.Owens, Ag. Economist, Wyoming Team, memo to A.R.Baron, Assistant Director HAVR, March 25, 1971, 3pp.

19th Century Pushtun Tribal Structure and Legal Customs, Joan C. Harvey, April, 1972, 115 pp.

USAID-ASSISTED DEVELOPMENT IN THE HELMAND-ARGHANDAB VALLEY, Notes on Program Successes and Problems, USAID/Afghanistan, Kabul, 1973, 16pp, w/photos.

Helmand Valley Crop and Insect Survey, Jerry Rann, Entomologist, USAID/Kabul, July 1973, 10 pp.

Afghan Social Structure and the Development Process: Power and the Rural Scene R.B. Scott DP, February 18 1975, 9pp.

Helmand River Basin Soil and Water Survey Study Report, GOA/USAID, 1976, 129 pp.

Existing Infrastructure (Helmand Valley Project), likely USAID/Kabul, ca.1978, 3pp.

The Helmand Valley Project in Afghanistan, AID Evaluation Special Study No. 18, by Cynthia Clapp-Wincek and Emily Baldwin, USAID/W, Dec. 1983, 9pp.

United States Foreign Assistance to Afghanistan: 1952 to 1979, John Turner PPC/CDIE/DI, Research and Reference Project, with assistance by Elisabeth Temple and John Stiver, August 8, 1988, 116pp. (Includes Helmand Projects)

Rehabilitation of Irrigated Agriculture in Afghanistan's Arghandab and Helmand Valley: Report on Project Identification Mission, P.J. Riddell, Agrisystems (overseas) ltd. /MCI/USAID, March 1992, 48pp.

Helmand-Arghandab Valley Irrigation System: A Change Assessment 1973-1990, DAI/ESC/USAID, 1993, 53pp. w/satellite imagery.

Area Development Projects: Evaluative Criteria (The Helmand Arghandab Valleys), James J. Dalton, USAID, April 1981, 23pp.

Rehabilitation of the Helmand Valley Irrigation and Drainage System, Malik Mortaza and Hashim Rayek, Society of Afghan Engineers/Afghan Assistance Coordination Authority, Kabul 2002, 9pp.

Initial Survey of the Middle Helmand Irrigated Agriculture Production Systems, Johannes Oosterkamp, USAID-RAMP, December 2003, 29pp.

Rehabilitation Needs Assessment for the Middle Helmand Irrigated Agriculture System, DAI/USAID, April 04, 63pp.

The Southern Strategy, USAID/Afghanistan, February 2007, 33pp.

Cold Storage, Air Freight, and High Value Afghan Horticulture: An Overview & Concept Note, David Altus Garner, December 2009, 16pp.

Land Settlement:

Land Settlement and Related Problems, V. Webster, consultant, USAID/Afganistan, May 1967, 20 pp.

Land Settlement in the Helmand Valley, A.R. Baron, AD,HAVR, memo to the Files, August 10, 1971, 4pp.


Field Report, Public Health, Helmand Valley, 10-12 May 1973, Frank T. Brechin, CARE-MEDICO/Kabul, 8pp.

MSF Exploratory Mission in Helmand, Medecins Sans Frontiers, February 1989, 40pp.

Helmand Projects Monitor and Supervision Report, Eng. M. Rabi Amaj, January-February 1991, Islamic Aid Health Center, 118pp.


Introduction to Narcotics

Afghanistan Narcotics Research and Awareness Project Plan for Project Reconfiguration (Final Draft), USAID/DAI, July 1991, 48pp.

R.B.Scott FAX to John Parker INL/Islamabad, on Helmand Irrigation Rehabilitation and Counter-Narcotics: A Proposal, 21 February 97, 3pp.

Project Document: Helmand Major Irrigation Schemes Rehabilitation Planning Project, U.N. International Drug Control Programme, May 1998, 56 pp. w/maps.

R.B.Scott letter to J.McHugh, INL/Islamabad, Helmand Work Season 1998, 28 Sept 98, 3pp.

R.B.Scott FAX to J.McHugh, INL/Islamabad, Helmand Work Season, 31 Oct 98, 4pp.

R.B. Scott MCI/Lash memo to M. Pont MCI/Quetta, Poppy Agreement and Discussions, 24 Dec 98, 7pp.

Dick Scott MCI/Lash. memo to Mark Pont MCI/Quetta, "Helmand Poppy: The Basis of the Economy", 15 Feb 99, 3pp.

R.B.Scott letter to R.Adams, INL/Asia, Proposal for Work on Central Helmand Drainage, 3 Nov 99, 2pp.

Unsolicited Comment on Narcotics in (Helmand) Afghanistan, R.B.Scott to K.F.Inderfurth, Dept. of State, FAX, 31 Jan 2000, 3pp.

Disaster Relief in Southern Afghanistan: A Large Food-for-Work Project Focused on Rehabilitation of the Central Helmand Irrigation System, R.B.Scott concept paper, Oct 2000, 4 pp.

Helmand Province Afghanistan and Opium Production, R.B.Scott to K.F.Inderfurth and M.A.Sheehan, Dept of State, Emails, 17 Dec 2000, 3pp.

Proposal to Support Taliban Ban on Opium Poppy, R.B.Scott to Richard Adams, INL/Asia, FAX, 3 Feb 01, 6pp.

Why the US Should Support the (Taliban) Poppy Ban, R.B.Scott to A.Eastham, Dept. of State, FAX, 10 Feb 01, 7pp.

Why the DEA Should Support the (Taliban) Poppy Ban, R.B.Scott to S.Casteel, DEA, FAX, 21 Feb 01, 6pp.

R.B.Scott to R.Adams, INL/Asia, FAX, Taliban Opium Poppy Ban, 27 Feb 01, 1p.

Do They Have Our Attention Yet?, R.B.Scott to A.Eastham, Dept of State, 6 March 01, 2pp.

Proposed Seed Project in Support of Poppy Ban, R.B.Scott to R.Adams, INL/Asia, FAX, 25 March 2001, 5pp.

(Proposed) Action on the Poppy Ban, R.B.Scott to A.Eastham, Dept. of State, FAX, 5 April 01, 3pp.

R.B.Scott to R.Adams, INL/Asia, letter, Taliban Opium poppy Ban and Cotton, 21 April 01, 5pp. w/photos.

R.B.Scott to L.Taylor, INL/Islamabad, Helmand vs. Nangahar for Work, 23 June 01, 3pp.

R.B. Scott memo to INL, DFDA, MCI, Proposed Action on Poppy Ban Support, 16 July 01, 3pp..

The Economic Superiority of Illicit Drug Production: Myth and Reality, Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan, David Mansfield, UNDCP Consultant, August 2001, 16pp.

Alternative Development in Afghanistan: The Failure of Quid Pro Quo, David Mansfield, UNDCP Consultant, August 2001, 18pp.

Poppy in Helmand, R.B.Scott to E.Kvitashvili USAID email, 20 Dec 01, 2pp.

Opium in Afghanistan: People and Poppies, The Good Evil, A Discussion Paper on Issues and Options, Frank Kenefick and Larry Morgan, Chemonics International, February 2004, 21pp.


Herds, Pastures and Nomads in the Lashkar Gah Area, R.B. Scott to James Wedberg Memo, USAID/Kabul Program Office, October 1973, 8pp.

Trip Report: Notes on Herding, Pastures and Nomads in the North Central Registan, R.B. Scott, USAID/Kabul, January 1974, 10pp.

Registan (Desert) Water/Pasture Assessment (UNAMA), Mid-Project Report, Will Hall, CADG Project Coordinator, CADG/Lashkar Gah, 30 April 04, 25pp.